Green Mining | Brownfield exploration – Developing Mine Camp Exploration Concepts and Technologies
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Brownfield exploration – Developing Mine Camp Exploration Concepts and Technologies

Name: Kaivosalueiden malminetsintäkonseptit ja teknologia – Developing Mine Camp Exploration Concepts and Technologies

Acronym: Brownfield exploration

Duration: 01.01.2013-30.09.2016

Total costs 833 000 €/Tekes support 500 000 € (60 %)

Leading research organization partner: Geological Survey of Finland (GTK)

Contact persons: Accountable project leader in GTK: Unit Head Risto Pietilä (risto.pietila(at) Project manager in GTK (project coordination): Geologist Soile Aatos (soile.aatos(at) Project manager in University of Helsinki (UH): Research Director Pekka Heikkinen (pekka.j.heikkinen(at)

Www: Tekes Green Mining Program pages introducing funded projects. Internal web pages for project steering group work (GTK). Internal wiki platform for project research group (GTK)

Research organization partners: Geological Survey of Finland (various units) & University of Helsinki, Institute of Seismology (and Department of Physics). Other non-contracted research collaborators were University of Oulu (Department of Physics), Geological Survey of Norway (NGU), and Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM)

Company partners: FinnAust Mining Finland Oy (chair of the project steering group), Boliden Kylylahti (Kylylahti Copper Oy), Mondo Minerals B.V. Branch Finland, and Joensuun Seudun Kehittämisyhtiö JOSEK Oy

International partners: Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), Uppsala University (Department of Earth Sciences), and IGME Greece (Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration). Other international collaborators outside of project were e.g. Geotech (ZTEM flight data and geophysical modeling subcontracting), modeling software application distribution companies (geophysical and 3D modeling) and colleague exploration and geophysical expert companies having been developed methodology applicable in deep exploration.

Please note: the Annex 1 is not yet public due to its draft nature in ongoing project.

Number of reviewed publications, incl. submitted manuscripts: minimum of 8 to be included in the scientific report of the project. Peer reviewed articles can be expected in the future, minimum of 3. Several abstracts and oral/poster presentations for international  and domestic scientific and exploration and mining audiences (Annex 1)

Number of other publications and reports: 1 technical report, expected scientific report in reviewed GTK publication series (Annex 1)

Number of thesis: Master 2. University of Helsinki.   (Annex 1) (Data and research material to later doctoral thesis articles concerning at least 2 persons, University of Helsinki and University of Eastern Finland.

Need and motivation of the project:
Users need more systematic and efficient mineral exploration. Shallow parts of the mineralized zones in brownfield areas are already being explored and existing deposits more rapidly consumed, so there is a need to deeper (2 km, optimally 5 km). Developing deep exploration concepts and technologies aids in reaching new understanding of the deep 3D potential of the brownfields of Outokumpu Mining Camp area.

Main set targets:
Applying the concept of common earth modeling for deep mineral exploration with more quantitative than qualitative by nature. Constructing Common Earth Models (CEM) to comprise all available data from the area of interest. Developing methods, skills and concepts for deep exploration in mining camps using the Outokumpu Belt as an example. One aim was to understand the geological evolution, structural development and ore potential of the area e.g. by geological modeling of geophysical deep structures in 3D.


Key results

The project developed concepts and technologies for deep exploration of Outokumpu type metal and industrial mineral deposits in a brownfield mining district having active exploration and mining operations and expectations of future prospects, also. The present technological possibilities allowed the project to map the bedrock to depths of several kilometers using seismic reflection, audiomagnetotellurics (AMT), airborne Z-axis Tipper Electro-magnetic method (ZTEM) and potential field methods (gravity and magnetic) in accordance with deep geological interpretations. Integrated application of state-of-the-art deep exploration methods and Common Earth Modeling (CEM) concept with best available data and compiled new data. The project is still ongoing, so final reports are not publically available yet.

Commercialization measures and/or potential:

  • The new project data will be productized for data consumers in companies, in academia, and in public (various data and model applications). Commercial users of the project results are mining, exploration and consulting companies. The exploration and mining activities in the research area have been continuing and partly increasing during the project despite the challenging economical situation globally.
  • Finnish National Test Line will create new scientific and commercial collaboration, ideas and prospects after the project.
  • The project has offered starting point to two spin-off research projects with technology development aspect. The one in GTK in consortium with Åbo Akademi is funded by Finnish Academy (GECCO project, The other in UH is funded by EU ERA-MIN funding program (COGITO-MIN project, COst-effective Geophysical Imaging Techniques for supporting Ongoing MINeral exploration in Europe, Both projects have collaboration with domestic (GTK) or European (UH) academia, and multinational mining companies operating in Finland.


List of planned and actual manuscripts and publications

  • Aatos, S. (ed.) 2016. Developing Mining Camp Exploration and Technologies. Technical Report. Deadline 31.03.2016: A technical report of the project will be completed for project management group in March. The drafts of manuscripts will be delivered to the project management group as soon as they are ready for review. The project data package planning and compilation starts from the early April on. The project data presentation scheduling for April continues with companies. Attachment to the Technical Report: A CD-ROM compilation of project presentations (2015-2016). The presentation data has been compiled on the 24.03.2016 and delivered on the 29.03.2016 for the project steering group.
  • Aatos, S. (et al. ?) (ed.) 2016. Project Report. Suggested to be published in the thematic Special Paper series of GTK).


The project has following manuscript drafts prepared for the commenting of the project management group in March:

  • Komminaho, K., Koivisto, E., Heikkinen, P., Tuomi, H., Hellqvist, N. and Kukkonen, I. 2016. Seismic ore exploration in the Outokumpu area, eastern Finland: Constraints from seismic forward modeling and geometrical considerations.
  • Lahti, I., Leväniemi, H., Kontinen, A., Sorjonen-Ward, P., Aatos, S. and Koistinen, E. 2016. Geophysical surveys of the Miihkali area, Eastern Finland.
  • Aatos, S. 2016. Regional analysis of hydrothermal nickel prospectivity in Outokumpu Mineral District.
  • Leväniemi, H. 2016. Petrophysical parameters and potential field modeling in the Outokumpu Belt.
  • Heinonen, S., Kontinen, A., Leväniemi, H., Lahti, I., Hellqvist, N., Kurimo, M., Maitituerdi, A. & Koivisto, E. 2016. Sukkulansalo National Test Line in Outokumpu –ground reference for deep exploration methods.
  • Laine, E. 2016. 3D modelling of the Outokumpu assemblage rocks especially lithological heterogeneity and ore potential.
  • Nousiainen et al. 2016. ZTEM survey in the Outokumpu region
  • Nousiainen et al. 2016. EM studies in the research area


Manuscripts that are not fully finished yet are:

  • Aatos et al. 2016. The introduction to the project and OKU-DEX concept
  • Sorjonen-Ward, P. 2016. Structural geological article.


Peer reviewed article(s) in a scientific journal of suitable quality and subject matter (cf. scientific article Peltonen et al. 2008, Ore Geology Reviews of Elsevier), planned or discussed in GTK. To be circled outside the project consortium after the qualification period of the project has ended.

  • In a journal: Lahti, I. (AMT)
  • In a journal: Laine, E. (3D geomodeling). Schedules open.
  • In a journal: Aatos, S. (2D-3D geomodeling). Doctoral thesis manuscript. In the future, schedules open.
  • In a book: Sorjonen-Ward, P. (structural geology) & Heinonen, S. et al. (seismic studies)


The planning of the project publications in GTK was linked to the yearly in-house project planning where relevant. Scientific publications basing on theses or manuscripts about applying different modeling methods and tools to project data to be submitted to peer-reviewed scientific journals are possible during or after the project:

  • Korhonen, J. Scientific publication of deep magnetism (?)
  • ZTEM expert presentation in Autumn 2016 on a European geophysical meeting stage (EAGE Barcelona, Spain on the 04.-08.09.2016).


The UH project group aims at 2 scientific peer reviewed journal articles or manuscripts during the project depending on the publication qualifying period of the project:

  • Article for doctoral thesis: Niina Hellqvist
  • International meetings: Maitituerdi, A. 2016. Seismic Reflection Method for Ore Exploration in the Outokumpu Area, Finland: Insights from Data Processing. University of Camerino, Italy. The Master’s thesis of Aihemaiti Maitituerdi was supervised by E. Koivisto (UH)
  • Tuomi, H. 2016. Master’s thesis in preparation.



The second Mineral Potential Workshop in Kuopio on the 6.-7.5.2014. Abstract proceedings: Lauri, L. S., Heilimo, E., Leväniemi, H., Tuusjärvi, M., Lahtinen, R. & Hölttä, P. (eds.) 2014. Current Research: 2nd GTK Mineral Potential Workshop, Kuopio, Finland, May 2014. Geological Survey of Finland, Report of Investigation 207. 161 pages, 71 figures and 4 tables. (Electronic publication). Link to the full text:

International meetings and congresses:

  • Komminaho et al. 2016. Seismic ore exploration in the Outokumpu area, eastern Finland: Constrains from 3D seismic full waveform modeling and processing considerations. Seismix 2016, 15-20 May, Aviemore, Scotland. Abstract for oral presentation.
  • Heinonen et al. 2016. Integration of geophysical data for deep exploration in the Kylylahti Cu-mining area, eastern Finland was be introduced in EAGE Deep Exploration Workshop 2016 in Münster, Germany. Abstract and oral presentation.
  • Aatos, S. 2015 & 2016. Regional scale prospectivity analysis of Outokumpu mineral district. Abstract for oral presentation. 32nd Nordic Geological Winter Meeting. Helsinki, 13-15 January, 2016.
  • Aatos, S. 2015. Introduction to the Outokumpu (OKU) brownfield project. Seminar on new exploration technologies and assessment of undiscovered metal resources in Finland (PreFEM 2015). Tekes, Green Mining Program and GTK. 3rd November 2015. Hotel Hullu Poro, Levi, Kittilä, Finland. Oral presentation.
  • Laine, E. 2015. Lithological 3D grid model of the Vuonos area built by using geostatistical simulation honoring the 3D fault model and structural trends of the Outokumpu association rocks in Eastern Finland. Abstract, EGU 2015, Vienna.
  • Lahti, I., Kontinen, A., Aatos, S. & Smirnov, M. 2015. AMT survey in the Outokumpu ore belt, Eastern Finland. Abstract for poster presentation, EGU 2015, Vienna.
  • Komminaho, K., Hellqvist, N., Tuomi, H., Koivisto, E., Heinonen, S. & Heikkinen, P. 2015. Seismic 3D full waveform response of Outokumpu type ore. Abstract, EGU 2015, Vienna.
  • Hellqvist, N., Koivisto E., Komminaho, K., Tuomi, H., Malehmir, A., Kukkonen, I., Heikkinen, P., Voipio, T. & Wijns, C. 2015. Seismic response of ore deposits in Kevitsa and Outokumpu mining areas: new insights from data mining and seismic forward modeling. Abstract, EGU 2015, Vienna.
  • Zhang, Y., Sorjonen-Ward, P., Ord, A. and Kontinen, A., 2015. Numerical simulation of structural evolution from regional to local scale in the Outokumpu ore district, eastern Finland. Abstract, EGU 2015, Vienna.
  • Heinonen, S. et al. 2014. Deep ore exploration of sulfides with seismic reflection profiling in Outokumpu, Finland. 76th EAGE Conference & Exhibition 2014, Amsterdam. Extended abstract & poster presentation.
  • Aatos, S., Koistinen, E., Kontinen, A., Sorjonen-Ward, P., Torppa, J., Jokinen, J., Korhonen, J., Korpisalo, A., Kurimo, M., Laine, E., Leväniemi, H. & Lahti, I. 2014. Developing deep exploration methods in the Outokumpu mining camp area. GTK 2nd Mineral Potential Workshop in Kuopio. Abstract for oral presentation.
  • Koistinen, E. & Aatos, S. 2014. Digitizing an old geological 3D interpretation of the Miihkali area. GTK 2nd Mineral Potential Workshop in Kuopio. Abstract & poster presentation.
  • Kurimo, M., Leväniemi, H. & Lahti, I. 2014. ZTEM survey in Outokumpu. GTK 2nd Mineral Potential Workshop in Kuopio. Abstract & oral presentation.
  • Laine, E. & Leväniemi, H. 2014. 3D modelling of the Sola serpentinite using old geological maps and 3D magnetic inversion. GTK 2nd Mineral Potential Workshop in Kuopio. Abstract for poster presentation.
  • Komminaho, N. Hellqvist, E. Laine, E. Koivisto, S. Heinonen, P. Heikkinen 2014. 3D full waveform modeling of Outokumpu ore belt formation. 16th SEISMIX, 12th-17th October 2014, Castelldefels, Barcelona. Abstract & oral presentation.
  • Hellqvist, N., Komminaho, K., Koivisto, E., Heinonen, S., Heikkinen, P. & Kukkonen, I. 2014.  Reflection seismic surveying for ore exploration in Outokumpu, Finland. 16th SEISMIX, 12th-17th October 2014, Castelldefels, Barcelona. Abstract & poster presentation
  • Aatos, S. et al. 2013. deevloping Deep Exploration Concepts and Technologies in Outokumpu Mining Camp Area. FEM 2013 Levi. Tekes Green Mining poster session. Abstract and poster.


Presentations in domestic meetings:

  • Nousiainen, M. et al. 2015. Outokumpu Deep Exploration -hankkeen geofysiikka. Sovelletun geofysiikan neuvottelupäivät, Oulu 24.11.2015.
  • Aatos, S., Heikkinen, P., Kukkonen, I. and Kurimo, M. 2015. Developing Deep Exploration Concepts and Technologies. Projektin yleisesittelyposteri. XXVII Geofysiikan Päivät 2015, Oulun yliopisto 26.-27.5.2015.
  • Leväniemi, H. 2015. OKU Mining Camp. Geofysiikan tutkijapäivät (KOGE) 22.4.2015, Otaniemi, Espoo
  • Kurimo, M. 2014. Okun ZTEM-aineisto. Geofysiikan tutkijapäivät (KOGE) 12.-13.3.2014, Otaniemi, Espoo
  • Leväniemi, H. 2014. OKU Mining Camp. Geofysiikan tutkijapäivät (KOGE) 12.-13.3.2014, Otaniemi, Espoo
  • Heinonen, S. 2014. Okun seismiset aineistot. Geofysiikan tutkijapäivät (KOGE) 12.-13.3.2014, Otaniemi, Espoo
  • Aatos, S. & Kukkonen, I. 2013. Developing Deep Mining Camp Exploration. Tekes Green Mining kick-off seminar, 21.01.2013, Helsinki.


Outokumpu project workshops in Espoo and Helsinki (23.5. and 16.10.2013, respectively), in Polvijärvi and Outokumpu (6.-10.10.2014) and in Kuopio (27.-28.10.2015), please, see Attachment 1:

  • Several oral and poster presentations given by the project members in GTK, UH and international project guest researchers visiting the project
  • Heinonen et al. 2014. Abstract compilation of the OKU workshop in Polvijärvi and Outokumpu.


Other scientific communications:


Nousiainen, M. 2015. In-house presentations in GTK:

  • ZTEM introductions to project companies.


Aatos, S. 2015. In-house presentations in GTK:

  • GTK/ Eastern Finland Office, Kuopio/Bedrock Geology and Resources, March and December


Aatos, S. 2014. In-house presentations in GTK:

  • 3D data introduction to the project companies, January
  • Mineral potential strategy of GTK, January
  • GTK/Eastern Finland Office, Kuopio/Bedrock Geology and Resources, February
  • GTK/ Eastern Finland Office, Kuopio/Management Group of the Unit, May
  • GTK/ Eastern Finland Office, Kuopio/Oral presentation to a researcher group visting GTK (Chengdu Institute of Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources, CGS, 14th of October 2014)


Aatos, S. 2013. In-house presentations in GTK:

  • Aatos, S. 2013. GTK Geomodelling Services to Mining Companies. GTK Stakeholder Seminar, 07.05.2013 Hotel Scandic, Kuopio, Finland.