28 kesä ARSENAL – Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry
Name: Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry
Total costs (€)/Tekes support: 1.4 M€/980 k€
Leading research organization partner: Geological Survey of Finland (GTK)
Contact persons: Raisa Neitola, GTK, raisa.neitola(at)gtk.fi; Jutta Laine-Ylijoki, VTT, jutta.laine-ylijoki(at)vtt.fi; Aino-Maija Lakaniemi, TUT, aino-maija.lakaniemi(at)tut.fi
Research organization partners: GTK, VTT and TUT
Company partners: Outotec, Kemira, Ekokem-Palvelu, Agnico Eagle, Endomines, Nordic Mines, Pyhäsalmi Mine, YARA, Mondo Minerals
International partners: Dr. Kathryn Wakeman (University of Bangor, UK); Prof. Bestamin Özkaya (Yildiz Technical University, Turkey), Stefano Papirio (University of Cassino and the Southern Lazio, Italy); Chyi-How Lay (Feng Chia University, Taiwan) and CICITEM Regional Research Center (Chile)
Number of reviewed publications, incl. submitted manuscripts: 6
Number of other publications and reports: 23
Number of MSc/BSc thesis: 2
Need and motivation of the project: Arsenic is a worldwide challenge in drinking water but also in effluents from the mining industry. Arsenic is commonly associated with ores containing metals such as gold. It can also be found as other arsenic minerals in nickel ores and industrial minerals. It is a problematic element due to its relatively high mobility over a wide range of redox-conditions and its toxicity to humans, animals and plants. Therefore, in the mining processes arsenic is often solubilized thus creating the need to control arsenic in beneficiation processes and to treat mine effluents for the removal of arsenic as well as to minimize the environmental impact of arsenic discharges.
Main set targets: The target of this co-operation project was to develop solutions to control and remove arsenic from various arsenic containing materials and effluents in beneficiation processes and other mining operations. ARSENAL-project concentrated on the following materials and waters: gold ores and concentrates in mineral processes, process and waste waters, and industrial by-products. In connection with ARSENAL-project the research was focusing on:
- Desk study of arsenic
- Characterization of mineralogical, chemical and environmental properties of arsenic containing materials
- Mineral processing methods e.g. flotation for arsenic bearing gold ores
- Sorption techniques for mine waters
- Bioprocessing for industrial side streams and mine waste waters
- Environmental research and modeling
The results of ARSENAL project suggest that by novel mineral processing and proper water treatment methods the amount of arsenic compounds in tailings and effluents can be reduced to levels that satisfy the regulations concerning mining waste management. According to the environmental research, mining activities tend to increase the proportion of potentially mobile and available elements in soil. The effect of mining activity on geogenic contamination needs to be considered in risk assessment.
Commercialization measures and/or potential: Mondo Minerals is expanding its operations in Outokumpu. The company is making a huge investment in building a new nickel processing facility. In the Arsenal project, we had the opportunity to participate in the research aimed at developing the process of the nickel bioleaching facility for the Mondo Minerals mining company.
(link to final report):
List of publications
- Turunen, K., Backnäs, S., Pasanen, A. Neitola, R. Factors Controlling the Migration of Tailings-Derived Arsenic: A Case Study at the Yara Siilinjärvi Site, Mine Water Environment, IMWA International Mine Water Association.
- Ahoranta, S.H., Kokko, M.E., Papirio, S., Özkaya, B., Puhakka, J.A. 2016. Arsenic removal from acidic solutions with biogenic ferric precipitates, Journal of Hazardous Materials 306, pp. 124-132.
- Brandt, H., Belloni K. (eds.) Arsenic removal from mine waters using sorption techniques In: Green solutions for water and waste – science brought into action. VTT, pp. 53 – 57 http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/researchhighlights/2014/R11.pdf
- Kaartinen, T. Jermakka, J., Arnold M., Strategies for mining water pollution control: Removing arsenic with sorption techniques, Latin Water Week March 2013, Chile
- Kaartinen, T., Laine-Ylijoki, J., Ahoranta, S., Korhonen, T., Neitola, R. Arsenic Removal from Mine Waters with Sorption Techniques, IMWA International Mine Water Association, submitted.
- Investigating Geochemistry and Mobility of Geogenic and Antropogenic Arsenic at Kittilä Suurikuusikko Gold Mine , Will be submitted to Special Issue of Applied Geochemistry ”Geochemistry for Risk Assessment”
- Neitola, R. Korhonen, T. Saastamoinen, T. Backnäs, S. Turunen, K. Pasanen, A. Mörsky, P. Kaartinen, T. Laine-Ylijoki, J. Wahlström, M. Venho, A. Ahoranta, S. Nissilä, M. Puhakka, J. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry. ARSENAL project final report. GTK Research Series submitted
- Neitola, R., Korhonen, P., Mörsky, P., Backnäs, S., Turunen, K.; Karlsson, T., Kaartinen, T., Laine-Ylijoki, J., Jermakka, J., Ahoranta, S., Papirio, S. & Puhakka, J.A. 2013. Solutions for Control of Arsenic and Nitrogen Discharges in Mining Areas and Processes. FEM, Poster presentation.
- Neitola In: Sarala, Pertti (toim.) Geokemian päivät 2014: tiivistelmät (11th Finnish Geochemical Meeting 2014: abstracts), 5.-6.2.2014, GTK, Espoo, Finland. Espoo: Vuorimiesyhdistys, 24-25.
- Neitola, R., Korhonen, T., Backnäs, S., Turunen, K., Kaartinen, T., Laine-Ylijoki, J., Wahlström, M., Venho, A., Ahoranta, S., Nissilä, M., and Puhakka, J. 2015. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 17, EGU2015-15404, EGU General Assembly 2015, Poster session, Vienna.
- Neitola, R. et al. Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry (ARSENAL), Poster Session, Green Mining Annual Seminar, Helsinki 2014.
- Neitola, R. et al. Solutions for Control of Arsenic and Nitrogen Discharges in Mining Areas and processes’, Green Mining Poster Session, 9th Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining Conference, Levi, 2013.
- Neitola, R., Solutions for Arsenic Control in Mining Processes and Extractive Industry, Green Mining Seminar, EuroMining 2015 trade fair, Tampere, 2015 (invited oral presentation).
- Neitola, R., Arsenic and Nitrogen handling in mining areas and processes, Green Mining Seminar, EuroMining 2013 trade fair, Tampere, 2013 (invited oral presentation).
- Kaartinen, T. Arsenic removal from mine water with low cost sorbents, ERA-MIN roadmap Conference, Lissabonissa, 2013. Poster presentation.
- Kaartinen, T. Arsenic removal from mine waters by sorption, Mine Water Management and Treatment – From Planning of Mine Operations to Mine Closure, Kuopio, 2013, Oral presentation.
- Neitola, R., ’Arseeni kaivosympäristöissä’, Laboratorioalan luentopäivät, Aulanko, 2012 (invited oral presentation in Finnish).
- Neitola, R., ’Arseeni kaivosympäristöissä’ Kaivos-Gruva trade fair, Seminar organized by Pohto ’Toimivan kaivoksen ympäristön hallinta – maa, vesi ja ilma’, Oulu, 2012 (invited oral presentation in Finnish).
- Neitola, R., Arsenic and nitrogen compound discharges in mining and solutions to their removal, Green Mining Annual Seminar, Finlandiatalo, Helsinki, 2012 (invited oral presentation).
- Venho et al. Immobilization of Arsenic during Bioleaching of Nickel Flotation Concentrate through pH Control Biohydrometallurgy ’12, Falmouth, Cornwall, UK 18. – 20.6.2012, Poster presentation.
- Backnäs, S. Turunen, K. and Pasanen, A. 2013. Arseenin geokemiaa Kittilän Suurikuusikon kultakaivoksen ympäristössä: Luontainen vs. antropogeeninen kuormitus. Pro Terra 61/2013, 68-69, Suomen maaperätieteiden seura January 2013. (poster presentation)
- Turunen, K., Backnäs, S. and Pasanen, A. 2013. Geochemistry and migration of anthropogenic arsenic emissions in Yara Siilinjärvi industrial site, Finland. EGU General Assembly 2013, oral presentation held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria, id. EGU2013-231.
- Backnäs, S. Turunen, K. and Pasanen, A. 2013. How to distinguish natural and anthropogenic arsenic emissions? – A case study of Kittilä Suurikuusikko gold mine in Finland. EGU General Assembly 2013, poster presentation held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria, id. EGU2013-844.
- Turunen, K., Backnäs, S. and Pasanen, A. 2013. The effect of the anthropogenic activities on geochemical behavior of arsenic at two geologically different mine sites in Finland. Weisenberger, Tobias and Junttila, Hanna (eds.) Program and abstracts of the 9th National Geological Colloquium Oulu. (oral presentation)
- Turunen, K., Backnäs, S. and Pasanen, A. 2013. Arseenin kulkeutuminen Yara Suomi Oy:n Siilinjärven tehdasalueella. Pro Terra 61/2013, 34-35. Maaperätieteen seura. Maaperätieteiden päivät-conference, in Helsinki, Finland 2013. (Oral presentation) (in Finnish)
- Backnäs, S. Turunen, K. and Pasanen, A. 2013. How do mine waters affect the natural arsenic geochemistry in glacial till and bedrock? – A case study of Kittilä Suurikuusikko gold mine in Finland. 29th International Conference on environmental Geochemistry and Health, 8th-12th July 2013 Toulouse (France): Abstract book, s. 177 July 2013. (poster presentation)
- Turunen, K., Backnäs, S. and Pasanen, A. 2013. Comparison of arsenic geochemistry and ecological risks at two geologically different mine sites in Finland 29th International Conference on environmental Geochemistry and Health, 8th-12th July 2013 Toulouse (France): Abstract book, s. 177 July 2013. (oral presentation)
- Turunen, K., Backnäs, S. and Pasanen, A. 2013. The effect of the anthropogenic activities on geochemical behavior of arsenic at two geologically different mine sites in Finland. ERA-MIN roadmap conference Lisbon 2013. (poster presentation)
- Backnäs, S. Turunen, K., Pasanen, A., Karlsson, T. and Solismaa, L. 2013. Contaminant Geochemistry and Migration in Three Different Mine Sites in Finland – Comparison of Anthropogenic and Geogenic Contamination for Risk Assessment. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(5) 638, 2013 August 2013.
- Venho, A. Immobilization of Arsenic through pH Control during Bioleaching of Nickel Flotation Concentrate. 2013. Master of Science Thesis, Tampere University of Technology.
- Ahoranta, S. Novel bio-oxidation and arsenic control processes for gold recovery’ (väitöstyö), Kevät 2017 (arvioitu valmistumisaika, osa projektin tuloksista)